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Many factors contribute to weight gain and obesity. These factors are both genetic, environmental and behavioral. It is important for a surgery candidate to understand what factors have lead to their obesity in order to succeed as a bariatric surgery patient.
Midlife weight gain in women is mainly due to aging and lifestyle, but menopause also plays a role. Many women gain around 5 pounds during menopause and have more fat around the waist than they did before beginning menopause.
People who sleep fewer hours also seem to prefer eating foods that are higher in calories and carbohydrates, which can lead to overeating, weight gain, and obesity over time.
Hormones that are released during sleep control appetite and the body’s use of energy. For example, insulin controls the rise and fall of blood sugar levels during sleep. People who don’t get enough sleep have insulin and blood sugar levels that are similar to those in people who are likely to have diabetes. Getting minimal amounts of sleep also seems to cause people to have higher levels of a hormone called ghrelin (which causes hunger) and lower levels of a hormone called leptin (which normally helps curb hunger).
Energy INPUT is the amount of energy (in calories) you ingest from food and drinks. Energy OUTPUT is the amount of energy (also in calories) your body uses for activities like breathing, digesting, and being physically active.
To maintain a healthy weight, your energy INPUT and OUTPUT don’t have to balance exactly every day. It’s the balance over time that helps you maintain a healthy weight.
Lack of neighborhood sidewalks and safe places for recreation: Not having area parks, trails, sidewalks, and affordable gyms makes it hard for people to be physically active
Work schedules: People often say that they don’t have time to be physically active because of long work hours and time spent commuting.
Oversized food portions: Americans are surrounded by huge food portions in restaurants, fast food places, gas stations, movie theaters, supermarkets, and even home. Some of these meals and snacks can feed two or more people. Eating large portions means too much energy IN. Over time, this will cause weight gain if it isn’t balanced with physical activity.
Lack of access to healthy foods: Some people don’t live in neighborhoods that have supermarkets that sell healthy foods, such as fresh fruits and vegetables. Or, for some people, these healthy foods are too costly.
Your genes also may affect the amount of fat you store in your body and where on your body you carry the extra fat. Because families also share food and physical activity habits, a link exists between genes and the environment. Children adopt the habits of their parents. A child who has overweight parents who eat high-calorie foods and are inactive will likely become overweight too. However, if the family adopts healthy food and physical activity habits, the child’s chance of being obese is reduced.
These medicines can slow the rate at which your body burns calories, increase your appetite, or cause your body to hold onto extra water. All of these factors can lead to weight gain.
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